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table and fertile egg productions and suppliers to companies and individuals in Ghana is available at your finger tips with Halaalfarms. poultry farmers in Ghana by large, those petronizing day old chicks and eggs from us are fully satisfied
we want to help to improve the poultry farming in Ghana with affordable poultry products to farmers in Ghana. 

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New member in Halaalfarms

Posted by kayla wu on May 19, 2020 at 5:10 AM Comments comments (0)

Hello,I'm Kayla,a new member in Halaalfarms.I'm from Hightop chicken cage.A professional equipment company.

More information to https://www.hightoppoultry.com/

Call me:+8617733857046

How to increase the chicken laying rate in the summer

Posted by Helena Cheng on May 19, 2020 at 4:25 AM Comments comments (0)

A Main points of management before the chicken lays eggs

few weeks before chickens lay eggs, is considered the transitional period from the growth phase to the laying period. At this stage, a series of tasks such as putting the chickens into their cage, selection, immunization, changing the feed and increasing light will cause a great deal of responsibility.


During this period, the chicken’s physiology changes drastically. The chicken is sensitive and has weak adaptability and poor disease resistance. If the feeding and management are not up to par, this will adversely affect the performance of laying.


9 important points for improving the egg laying rate

1. Preparation

Overhaul the chicken coop and equipment, and carefully check the chicken feeding system, drinking water system, power supply lighting, ventilation, drainage and cages, frame and other equipment. If there has been any abnormality this should be repaired promptly;

Thoroughly clean and disinfect the chicken coop and equipment. Steps: first clean the feces, dust, and dirt on the floor, roof, and wall of the chicken coop. Then wash the chicken coop and equipment with a high-pressure washer. Finally, disinfect the chicken house and equipment.

Prepare the necessary utensils, medicines, instruments, record forms and feed, and arrange the feeding personnel

2. Transfer chicken to cage

1) Age of chicken transfer to cage


Chickens typically lay eggs at around 16 weeks, so they must be put into the cage before 15-16 weeks. This ensures that the hens have a period of time to become familiar with the environment before laying eggs. Then form a harmonious group sequence, and you will have enough time for immunization and other work. If chickens are put into cage too late, the egg laying time will be delayed and negatively affect the laying rate. The hens that have already been laying may be suspended due to high stress from being transferred. And some chickens may have yolk peritonitis and result in a significant increase in the number of dead chicken eggs.



We require that the growth and development is good, even, and tidy. If uneven, it will seriously affect production performance. When putting chickens into cages, we should remove the undersized, thin, and stray chickens that have no breeding value, and choose high-quality chickens with lively spirit, strong constitution, and suitable weight.



Even if the chicken in the brooding period is good, due to factors such as genetics and rearing management, there will still be some smaller and larger chickens in the flock. If we eliminate them, the cost will be increased and the cages in the layer house cannot be fully used. You will need to leave the smaller and larger chickens. Then put them into different cages separately. Take special measures to strengthen management to promote their uniformity. For example, put the smaller chickens in the middle cage with high temperature and exposure to the sun. Increase the nutrition properly to promote their growth and development. For large chickens, the number in the cage should be properly limited. According to the capacity of the cage, each single cage can be fed into a sufficient quantity at a time to avoid chickens that enter the cage first by bullying the chickens that enter the cage late.


chicken farming project


3. Immunization

Immunization should be carried out before laying eggs. The immunization is essential to prevent the spread of diseases during egg production.


The immunization procedure is reasonable and conforms to the actual situation in the field. The vaccine source should be reliable, well preserved, and have quality assurance. The vaccination route should be appropriate and the operation done correctly with accurate dosage. After vaccination, you will need to check the effect of the vaccination. And if necessary, conduct antibody testing to ensure the effect of the vaccination, so that the chickens have sufficient antibody levels to prevent disease.


One method to improve the immune system is through respiratory administration. By dissolving the drug in water to use a fogger sprayer, when the chicken breathes the medicine will be in their body.


disinfectant fogger machine


4. Expelling parasites

It should be done before laying eggs. For 110-130-day-old chickens, put 20-40 mg of levamisole or 200-300 mg of carbofuran per kilogram of body weight into the feed once a day for a total of 2 days to expel roundworms. Then put between 100-200 mg of bithionol per kilogram of body weight into the feed once a day for a total of 2 days to drive out tapeworms. When the oocysts of coccidioides are seriously polluted, the anti-coccidioides should be used continuously for 5 – 6 days after being put in the cage.


5. Light

Light has a great influence on the reproductive performance of chickens. Increasing light can stimulate the secretion of sex hormones to promote egg production. Shortening the light exposure will inhibit the secretion of sex hormones, thus inhibiting ovulation and egg production. By controlling the light exposed to the chicken this will stimulate and maintain the egg-laying balance. In addition, the light can adjust the sexual maturity of the reserve chickens and encourage the chicken to lay neatly. Light control is very critical when chickens are ready to lay. Appropriate light stimulation can ensure chickens lay properly beforehand and reduce feeding costs.


For chickens that meet the requirements or are slightly larger than the standard body weight, the light hours can be increased to 13 hours at around 16 – 17 weeks of age, and then increased by 20 minutes a week until the light hours reach 16 hours. The chickens with lower body weight should start light stimulation at around 18 – 20 weeks of age.


Light hours should increase gradually. If the exposure to light is too long, it’s easy to cause prolapse. Light intensity should be appropriate, not too strong or too weak. If too strong this will cause chickens to peck, and if too weak it is not effective.


Professional LED lights not only have a positive effect on the chicken laying rate, but also has good qualities to resist water, fire, and ammonia.


poultry house lighting systems


6. Breeding

Feeding before laying not only affects the laying rate and the duration of the peak laying period, but also affects the death rate.


1)Change feed in due course. In order to make hens more productive, reduce the rate of egg breakage, and reduce the occurrence of fatigue in laying hens, the calcium content in the diet should be increased from 0.9% to 2.5% from the age of 17 weeks. When the laying rate reaches 20% – 30%, the calcium content should increase to 3.5%.


2)Ensure feed intake. Before laying, you should let the chicken pick food freely, eat fully, ensure balanced nutrition, and promote the rate of laying.


3)Ensure drinking water. At the beginning of laying, the chicken has a strong metabolism and requires a significant amount of water. It is necessary to ensure adequate water. Insufficient water will affect the laying rate, and there will be more cases of prolapse of the anus.


7. Reduce stress

1) Arrange working time to reduce stress.


Putting chickens in cages and immunization is best done in the evening. Catch, transport, and put the chicken into the cage should be light. Before putting chickens into cages, you need to add feed in the feeder trough, water into the tank, and maintain the appropriate light intensity so that when chickens enter the cage they can drink water, eat feed, and get familiar with the environment as soon as possible. There should be a transitional period when changing the feed.


Use anti-stress additives.

There are many stress factors before laying. Anti-stress agents can be added to the feed or drinking water to relieve stress. Vitamin C, instant multidimensional, fumaric acid, and sedative chlorpromazine are commonly used.


8. Sanitation

After entering the cage, the chicken is not familiar with the environment and this will cause great stress. As the rate of laying increases, the metabolism of the chicken is vigorous and the resistance is poor. It is extremely vulnerable to pathogens so it is necessary to strengthen resistance and immunity.


Put an end to allowing the foreign staff into the feeding area and chicken house. The feeding staff need to be disinfected before entering;

Pay attention to the chicken house environment, drinking water, and feed hygiene;

Regularly disinfect the inside and outside of the house to reduce disease;

Pay attention to the use of some antibacterial drugs and Chinese herbal medicines to prevent the occurrence of E. coli and mycoplasmosis.

9. Strengthen observation

Pay attention to the chicken feeding, respiration, feces and laying rate increases carefully, and find solutions to the problems promptly.


Before and after laying eggs, the physiology changes drastically, and the chickens are sensitive and uneasy. They are prone to getting hanging necks and winging. It is necessary to patrol more to detect and handle as soon as possible to reduce chances of death.


Pay attention, promptly find anal pecking chickens, bullied chickens, and sick and disabled chickens, and pick them out for treatment.


5 measures to improve the laying rate in summer

1. Control the temperature of the chicken house

Reduce the heat radiation and reflection of the chicken house.

By planting trees around the chicken house or putting up shade, planting grass around the chicken house, painting the chicken house roof white or setting a ceiling, all these methods can reduce the radiation and reflect heat effectively to make the house cool.


If you build enclosed chicken houses, you can use exhaust fans and cooling pads to make the house cool.


chicken farm ventilating system



By installing fans and water curtains, spraying water in the chicken house from time to time, enhancing ventilation etc. All methods can reduce the temperature of the house effectively.


ventilation equipment


Reduce feeding density

Properly reduce the feeding density and reduce the chicken’s own heat production, so as to reduce the house temperature and reduce the impact of stress.


2. Strengthen feeding management

During the hot season, the temperature is higher around noon, therefore the chickens eat less, or even refuse to eat. You can adopt special feeding methods and change feeding times. For example, feed before 8 am and after 6 pm. Feed once more at night. Feeding less or no feeding at all from 8 am to 6 pm, but giving enough water (cold water is better). Where conditions permit, the powdered material can be changed to pellets, and the feed can be slightly moist. Increase the feed intake of the chicken, and reduce the effects of heat stress.


pellet feed


3. Adjust the feed

During the high-temperature season, the chickens eat relatively less. At this time, you can adjust the feed composition appropriately to ensure that the chickens get sufficient nutrition.


Adding 1% to 3% fat in the feed can not only increase the energy level of the feed, but also improve the palatability of the feed and increase the overall feed intake of the chicken.


Appropriately reduce the crude protein content in the feed and maintain the content of essential amino acids. You can add 0.1% to 1.5% methionine and 0.65% lysine.


4. Use anti-stress drugs and additives

Add vitamins

Add enough vitamins to the feed, especially vitamin C and vitamin E.


Vitamin C can greatly improve the anti-stress ability of the chicken. Vitamin E helps the chicken to achieve the best immune functionality and improve the overall resistance to pathogens.


Add granular calcium and electrolyte

The electrolytes not only make up for the lack of minerals and maintain the acid-base balance, but also improve the performance of the chicken undergoing heat stress. Adding the proper amount of granular calcium to the diet can supplement the low calcium levels in the blood. On the other hand, it can also increase the egg production rate and improve the quality of the eggshell.


5. Strengthen epidemic prevention and control the occurrence of diseases

Chickens get sick in summer easier, because mosquitoes breed and bacteria multiply quickly. It is necessary to strengthen the disinfection of chicken houses to prevent the spread of disease.


Clean the house and cushion the sand soilfrequently to strengthen

Adding fly maggot nets into the feed for 4 weeks can effectively reduce the breeding of mosquitoes and flies and significantly reduce the incidence of diseases spread by mosquitoes and flies.

Addingastragalus polysaccharide, plant hemagglutinin, hypericin or ciprofloxacin lactate, lysozyme regularly in the feed can prevent the occurrence of bacterial and viral diseases.

Proper vaccination is the key to prevent infectious diseases.

Hope this article was helpful and thanks for reading!

Poultry farmers in Ghana

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 24, 2019 at 7:00 AM Comments comments (0)

Market potential:

Rising domestic incomes have created increased in demand for animal protein, thus opening investment opportunities in both poultry meat and eggs. In Ghana, domestic consumption of poultry is increasing rapidly at roughly 13.9% per year. While local production is growing at a comparable rate of 14.1%, this poultry is dominated by “layers” rather than “broilers.” On a regional and global level, consumption rates have also shown steady growth at 6.9% per year and 4.1% per year, respectively.



Ghana’s broiler farm-gate prices (approximately $2,600 per metric ton) are 27.8% lower than regional prices; however, they are approximately double the prices in Brazil ($1,327 per metric ton) and the United States ($1,380 per metric ton). The high costs of maize and soya—key feed ingredients for poultry—have driven the cost of domestic poultry upward, as feed accounts for approximately 70% of production costs for poultry. Ghanaian broilers are not just globally uncompetitive in terms of price, but also tend to be of inferior quality to more tender imports. Frequent disease outbreaks in the past have also stifled the market, such that Ghana is now almost entirely reliant on imports from the U.S., Europe, and Brazil; imports account for 90% of local consumption. In contrast, “layer” production has been relatively successful in Ghana and continues to experience steady growth, as the perishable and fragile nature of eggs makes them unsuitable for import.


Investor outlook:

Investors demonstrated moderate interest in the poultry market. While those that are currently active in the value chain are engaged in the production of layers, many had intentions to pursue opportunities in broiler production once this became more viable.


Social impact:

Investments in this value chain will play a very important role in the livelihoods of rural poultry farmers, who contribute 60 to 80% of the national poultry population; such investments will also improve the livelihoods of maize and soya farmers by providing a market for their produce.


Illustrative Investment Opportunity


There is high potential for import substitution of broilers, as imports currently supply roughly 62% of consumption. However, the costs of production would need to be reduced significantly in order for locally produced poultry to compete with imports. This will require scaling up the production of maize and soya-based animal feed.

9 Rules For Starting Your Own Poultry Farm in Ghana

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 3, 2019 at 5:15 PM Comments comments (0)

Are you planning to start your own poultry farm? If so, then you should enter the business well prepared by considering all of its aspects. Right from setting up some basic equipment to raising the birds and marketing your business, you have to take every step wisely. Do not forget that there are many other poultry businesses. You will be competing with them.

However, if you conduct your business carefully, chances are that it will grow fast. The demand for poultry products is increasing by each day. So, there is a lot of scope for fast growth of your poultry farm despite a tough competition provided you follow some basics of the business. Your return on investment will be quick.

Here Are 9 Rules from HALAALFARMS For Starting Your Own Poultry Farming in Ghana

01. Choose Your Poultry Sector

Poultry farming is a wide industry. Basically, there are two types of the farming you can choose from – broilers and layers. Broilers are chicken that you raise for meat. Layers are chicken that you raise for eggs. Then, there is the business of incubating eggs and raising chicks.

Many chicken farms do business in multiple sectors. So, decide if you want to operate in all sectors or you want to restrict your business to just one or two sectors of your choice specially in the beginning.

Following are the niches you can choose from.

Meat production (Broilers breeding)

Egg production (Layers breeding)

Poultry feed production

Chicken breeding (Hatchery)

Egg and meat processing

02. Choose The Type Of Bird

Poultry farm owners rear many types of birds. Your small poultry farm may start by focusing on two to three birds and then include more birds later as the business grows. Mostly, poultry farms raise birds such as domestic fowl or chicken as broilers and layers, duck, goose, quail, guinea fowl, turkey, pigeon, and peacock.

You should also determine whether to rear broilers or layers. This is basically the choice to start farming for meat production or egg production.

Poultry Bird

03. Create Your Farm Logo

Another essential step you should take is to have a unique poultry farm logo for your business. Your logo will be everywhere on your farm products when you market them. The logo will also be on your marketing material such as visiting cards, websites and many other places. Therefore, make sure that your logo becomes a tool to show that you run a professional poultry farming business.

Crowdsourcing site Designhill can help you create a memorable poultry farm logo design at a very low price. Many talented logo designers will read your design brief to create your logo with new concepts.Designhill is an outstanding platform for bringing together business owners and graphic designers to create design products. 

poultry farm logo

04. Set Farm Location

You should think of setting your poultry farm at the most appropriate location. It is important that the location has all the necessary facilities. Try to build your poultry farm a little away from the town so that you can have the land and labor at a cheaper cost. 

However, setting up the farm too far away from the nearest town will be a mistake. Remember that you need to approach a town more often to target your consumers Moreover, a location too away from city may cost you more on transportation. 


05. Get Financial Help

You may not be having much money at hand when starting your own farm. But setting up a poultry farm needs sufficient funding. You will be buying a lot of equipment such as feeders, drinkers, perches, lighting system, incubators, heaters or brooders, and many more. Most importantly, you need a huge amount of funds to purchase land. You will put facilities to enhance your productivity.

Moreover, you require funds also to pay salaries of your staff/laborers. So, analyse your financial requirements. Then, apply for a bank loan or try some other sources of financing your farming business.


06. Spread A Word For Your Farm

You meet many people on daily basis. Tell them about your plans to start your own poultry business. Start from talking to your friends and neighbors. Visit events related to poultry farming and try to make friends with as many people as you can. You may meet some of your potential clients. Make all of them aware of your farming plans and take their advice.

When you contact people and clients, present your business card to them. This is a professional way to introduce your business. The card gives them your contact details like your phone number, fax number, and website address. They will keep your card and many of them will contact you whenever they need your poultry products.

poultry business card

07. Hire Professionals

Many aspects of poultry farming are such that they should be handled only by experienced people who know the nuances very well. So, hire only professionals who have many years of experience in the farming. But farming is not labor intensive, if you can involve technology.

However, you will also need an administrative officer or manager to keep a close eye on your day to day affairs of the business. Hire a manager who can double as your account also to save cost on staffing.

Hire Professionals

08. Put Your Business On The Web

Most of your potential clients search and shop poultry products online. If your clients are looking for poultry farms around a town, they will first use search engines to locate such businesses. If your farm is not on the web, you are missing on a plethora of business opportunities. Therefore, make it a point to have a dedicated website for your poultry business.

When users visit your poultry website, it should make a positive impact on them by its elements of colors, typeface, images, and relevant information. Create a website design that is easily navigational, loadable, and user-friendly.

poultry farm website

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09. Market Your Farm Products

When starting your poultry farm business, one of the significant things to keep in mind is the aspect of marketing. Without having a marketing plan, it is hard to achieve your business goals. To market your products, make sure that you have properly analysed the demand and supply situation for your products in your niche market. Know your target consumer also to pinpoint consumer profile.

Recommended Reading:

Top 5 Tips To Take Your Logo Design To The Next Level

Top 10 Logo Design Inspiration For Architectural Business

Top 10 Environment & Green Logo Designs That Never Fail To Inspire

Use Of Warm And Cool Colors In Logo Design

You should then adopt cheaper means of reaching to your consumers. For example, create and distribute flyers, which are one of the cheapest means of marketing your poultry products to masses. A creative flyer design will draw attention of the recipients immediately and many of them will think of buying your farm products. 

flyer design 

your poultry farm business can thrive if you take right steps from the beginning. Pick right poultry sector that you are interested in, choose the type of birds you want to rear, find a perfect location for your farm, get sufficient funds, hire a manager and staff, and market your products.

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Most importantly, get a unique logo for your farming business to create your identity in a market. Observe some of the top agriculture logo designs and take inspiration from them for creating your logo. Follow these tips and focus on promoting your business.

7 Things You Must Prepare Before Your Chicks Arrive

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 3, 2019 at 4:50 PM Comments comments (0)

The time is approaching- your chicks are going to be delivered soon, but are you totally prepared? 

It may seem like you have everything, but if it’s your first time there’s a good chance you may have missed something. 

You don’t want to be running round like a headless chicken when they arrive, so it’s best to double check everything now. 

We have compiled a check list for you of the 7 most important things you will need to have to ensure a good start for your little fuzzies!

Brooder Box

A brooder box is an absolute necessity. No matter what size your new additions are- chicks or pullets, they need their own secure space. 

They need to be isolated from your other birds to prevent possible cross infection. The quarantine period should be no less than two weeks– minimum! 

Mille Fleur D’Uccle Chicken 

The longer the better, but anything over a month is too much. 

It is also for their safety- chicks need to be at least 2/3 the size of adults before they are mixed in with the big girls otherwise they may be severely picked on. The only exception would be chicks raised by a Momma Hen who is already a flock member. She will protect her babies.

They need to be safe from predators (think dogs or house cats). The box or container needs to be large enough to comfortably hold the chicks and their food and water. A plastic tote bin with secure lid is ideal. 

A cardboard box or similar is also fine as long as it is secure. 

If you are brooding outside of the house, in a barn or outbuilding for instance- the brooder needs to be strong enough to withstand predators such as raccoons, mink and foxes. 

Correct Bedding

Bedding for chicks needs to be absorbent- they poop a lot!

It needs to be easy to clean up for you since you will be doing housekeeping at least twice a day to start. 

Pine shavings are relatively cheap and easy to find in the farm stores. They also have the benefit of a bit of traction for the chicks and they smell nice. Chopped straw is also good for chicks. 

I tend to lay down a piece of burlap under the shaving for the first few days, as the smooth plastic surfaces can be ‘slippy’ for them- so giving the chicks something to grip on reduces the possibility of ‘spraddle leg’ or injury to very delicate ligaments and tendons. 

Heat Lamp or Alternative Heat Source 

A heat source is vitally important. Without heat your chicks will likely die. 

Until they are fully feathered out, they need supplementary heat. There are several kinds of heat source available to you. 

Chick Brooder LightThe old fashioned heat lamp is still very popular because it is cheap and easy to set up. However, you need to be extremely watchful and aware of the possibility of fire. Should your lamp come into contact with something flammable it takes less than 2 minutes to start a fire. Many people have lost not only their chicks but barns and homes too.

There are a couple of companies that have come out with a heating plate which is raised so the chicks can huddle underneath- much like Mama Hen. They are not inexpensive, but worth the cost from a safety point of view. 

Water and Chick Waterer

The essence of life! 

All creatures need water to survive, chicks are no different. Initially they are clumsy little things, they can upturn waterers, fall in and drown if it’s too deep and of course, poop in it! 

Your waterer should be sturdy enough to withstand some abuse. My chick waterer is a quart glass Mason jar with a plastic dish attached. I also put pebbles into the dish so the water is not deep enough to drown in.

You will need to change out the water frequently since the chicks don’t seem to care where they poop. Always wash and rinse the dish each time and the container daily- even if it doesn’t look too dirty.

The reason for such cleanliness is twofold. 

Firstly, you don’t want chicks eating the bacteria from their poop- think E.Coli and Salmonella.

Secondly, the water is going to be kept fairly warm if you use a heat lamp and heat promotes the growth of bacteria.

I have read that chicken nipple waterers are suitable for chicks to use and I will be trying this out shortly. However, I would still keep a small regular type of waterer in the brooder for a few days just to be sure.

Feed and Feeder

Chicks need a special formula called chick starter. It is high in protein and contains all the nutritional needs of the bird until 6 weeks of age. 

You can buy medicated or un-medicated feed for your chicks.

Medicated feed contains a coccidiostat to help the chick develop resistance to coccidiosis. If you have chickens already, medicated feed is definitely worth thinking about since chicks are highly susceptible to coccidiosis and it can spread from older birds to younger birds.Chicks Eating

The feeder itself can be a gravity feeder similar to the drinker principle, or a trough feeder. 

I prefer troughs because it’s larger and everyone gets to eat, but it does have its’ drawbacks. There are always one or two chicks that will stand on the feeder and poop- this is quite wasteful of feed. You will need to make sure you clean out the feeder daily.

Note: chicks need grit to aid in the digestion of their food. Chick grit is much smaller than regular chicken grit. You will only need the grit if you are going to be feeding veggies or fruit in addition to the regular chick feed.

Electrolyte and Probiotic Solutions

There are several different brands out there, but they essentially all do the same thing- give the chicks a boost right at the beginning.

Just add to the water following the instructions when your chicks arrive home.

It’s also useful to have around just in case one of your birds looks poorly or isn’t thriving like the rest.

The probiotic helps with digestive health in the chicks and the electrolyte solution ensures they get the correct balance of necessary trace elements to start out life.

First Aid Kit

You should have one already for your older birds, but in case you’re new to all this, here’s what your ‘chick’ box should contain: 

Q-tips: For cleaning the muck of your chicks

Pipe cleaners: These are used if a chick has ‘curled toes’*

Small pair of scissors: For snipping badly matted fluff (use extremely carefully)

Electrolyte solution: For poorly birds that need an extra boost

Bandaids: Use to treat ‘spraddle’ leg

Dropper: For chicks that can’t/won’t drink or eat. A small dropper can be used to give fluid slowly to a challenged chick.

*Spraddle or splayed leg is caused by the chick trying to walk on smooth surfaces such as plastic or cardboard. Easily prevented by using paper towels, burlap or similar under the shavings for the first week or so. Once the leg muscles are strong enough, the burlap can be removed. 

There are many other things that will eventually go into your kit, but this will do for starters.



You are now officially ready for your chicks! Enjoy the little creatures and take lots of pictures because they grow very quickly.

I can promise you with a few weeks they will be outside with the big girls and look nothing like chicks!

If you give them a great start in life, they will reward you with lots of nutritious eggs, laughter as you watch their antics and free psychotherapy! Who could want for more?

Make sure you have all of the items on the list so you’re ready for anything when your chicks arrive.

Is there anything else you think we’ve missed off the list? Let us know what you need for your chicks in the comments below!

type of chicken feed by age

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 3, 2019 at 4:25 PM Comments comments (0)

How To Feed Chickens

Starter Feeds

Newly hatched chicks ages 0-10 weeks should be fed a chick starter diet with a protein level between 10%-20%. These rations are formulated to provide proper nutrition for growing baby chickens. Higher protein starter rations (22%-24%) are reserved for meat birds such as turkey, quail and pheasant. This higher protein level maximizes growth for broilers and roasters, but is not necessary or desirable for egg laying chickens.

Grower Feeds

At 10 weeks of age, a grower feed should replace the starter feed. Grower feeds are typically 15%-16% protein, and are designed to sustain growth to maturity. The higher protein content (20%), in starter/grower feeds is recommended for growing game birds.

Layer Feeds

Layer feeds are designed to provide optimum nutrition for birds laying eggs for consumption. Layer feeds contain 16% protein and have increased levels of Calcium, for proper shell development. Layer feeds should be fed starting around 18 weeks of age, or when the first egg is laid, whichever comes first.


It is necessary to provide an adequate supply of fresh, clean water for your birds at all times. Chickens will drink approximately three times as much water by weight as they eat in feed. A good rule of thumb is to provide one quart of water for every four chickens. Water intake levels will also increase significantly during periods of warm weather. Baby chicks should only be offered water, (no feed) during the first hour. The first water offered to Baby Chicks should include ¼ cup sugar and 1 teaspoon of Terramycin per gallon. This will help boost immunity and reduce stress of shipping. For the second day, 1 teaspoon of Terramycin only should be added (no sugar,) and then fresh clean water after that.

Frequently Asked Questions

Where do I find the most accurate and up to date information on feeding poultry?

Everything you need to select the right kind of feed for your birds is listed on the backs of the bags.

What do I feed my chickens and/or Game Bird

Like other animals, birds require carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals, vitamins, and water to sustain life. Complete poultry feeds are formulated to meet the differing levels of these basic needs during the stages of life.

How often do I feed my chickens?

The most widely accepted method of feeding poultry to attain maximum production is a full feeding method. Full feeding refers to offering a constant supply of feed at all times. Typically, when hens are restricted from consuming the amount of feed they desire, egg production will cease. 

How much do I feed my Chickens?

An average laying hen will consume about ¼ pound of feed per day, depending on factors such as size of the bird, weather conditions, and level of productivity. The following chart shows average daily feed consumption levels for chickens and turkeys by age. Consult the backs of the bags for guidelines for feeding other bird species.

Will my chickens get all the nutrients they need from scratch?

No. Scratch feeds, (usually cracked, rolled, or whole grains such as corn, barley, oats, or wheat), are relatively low in protein and do not provide balanced nutrition like complete feeds. In fact, if too much scratch is added to an already complete feed ration, nutrient levels can be diluted. Therefore, it is recommended that scratch be fed sparingly. A general rule of thumb is to feed only as much scratch as the chickens can clean up in about 20 minutes. If a scratch feed is offered, it is also a good idea to include an insoluble grit such as granite or cherry stone. Oyster shell is not a substitute for grit, because it is too soft. While feeding scratch is not necessary when feeding a complete feed, it does encourage the natural behavior to scratch the ground providing exercise and consumption of the grit necessary for digestion.

Should I feed laying hens differently than broilers and roasters?

Yes. Meat birds require a higher-level protein (approx. 20%-24%) for maximum growth. Laying hens can be maintained on a 16% protein layer feed that has added calcium to provide the hen with the proper nutrients to produce good eggs.

Is it okay to feed my chickens table scraps? 

While chickens appear to love table scraps, they are not necessarily beneficial to productivity or egg laying. Feeding a small amount of table scraps as a "treat" is not harmful to the birds, and is acceptable. However, the same rule applies to table scraps as scratch grain, the total supplemental of scratch and table scraps should be no more than can be cleaned up in about 20 minutes. 

When is it necessary to feed oyster shell?

When the laying hen's diet is deficient in Calcium, the hen lays eggs with thin shells, or no shell at all. Selecting a complete layer feed such as DuMor 16% Poultry Layer provides adequate nutrients in the proper proportion and allows the hen to produce eggs with good shells. If thin shells become a problem, a supplemental supply of calcium should be provided. Oyster shell is the most widely used form of supplemental calcium. When oyster shell is to be fed, it is recommended that 2 lbs. of shell be added to every 100 pounds of complete layer ration. 

Why do chickens need grit?

Birds do not have teeth to break down food for digestion. Food is swallowed whole and goes to the crop to be stored and mixed with saliva. The feed then passes to the stomach where it mixes with digestive juices. From the stomach, the feed then passes into the organ called the gizzard. The gizzard contains small stones, which the bird has eaten to help the gizzard to grind up the food for digestion. Nutrients are then absorbed as the feed passes along the intestine. The chicken must swallow the stones that the gizzard requires to grind up the food. Grit is the term for these tiny stones. Granite and cherry stone are two recommended grits. Limestone and Oyster shell are good for shell production, but are not acceptable substitutions for grit because they are too soft.


Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 3, 2019 at 4:20 PM Comments comments (0)

Debeaking : How To Debeak Chickens?

What is Debeaking or Beak Trimming?

Debeaking, also known as beak trimming, is the partial removal of the beak of poultry, especially layer

hens and turkeys, but sometimes it may also be performed on quail and ducks. Beak trimming is a

preventive measure to reduce damage caused by injurious pecking.

Why to Debeak chickens?

After Beak trimming, your chicken will reduce feed waste, and there is less risk of chicken fights, and

also prevent feather pulling.

Bebeaking is a Professional operation? 

Debeaking demands for professional operation, because if improperly operated, your chicken will have

difficulties in drinking and eating, and this will result in poor growth, and poor vevenness in flock.

However, there are some Tips that should be noted when dealing with debeaking:

How to Debeak chickens?

Firstly: When to do beak trimming? Usually, the best time for beak trimming for chickens is at the age

of only 10 - 15 days, when the stress reaction is relatively small. The second-time beak trimming will 

be done according to the results and production situation.

Before Beak trimming, please check the health status of chickens, for beak trimming should be done

only in healthy conditions. If sick or weak chickens are found, the chickens shold be kept separately,

and beak trimming will not be done until they recovered .

In addition, chickens are generally unsuitable for beak trimming during immunization or other stress

conditions. 3 days before and after beaking trimming, please increase the content of vitamins in feed

diet. Of course, you can also put vitamins into drink water. Please prepare for disinfection, hemostatic

drugs, during the beak trimming so as to avoid unexpected accident. 

There are many tools and methods for trimming beaks in chickens. It is advisable to use specialized

beak cutting machine. The length beak was to cut 1 / 2--2 / 3 of the upper beak and 1/3 of the

lower beak.

the blade was burned to Red color, holding the chicken by hand, with thumb against the back of the 

chicken head, index finger against the chin and gently swallow the throat, so that the head of the

chicken can not swing, while the chicken Tongue. Beak trimming will have to be done very fast,

usually within 1 - 2 seconds.

13 Common Chicken Diseases Every Chicken Keeper Should Know About (and How to Treat Them)

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 3, 2019 at 3:45 PM Comments comments (0)

1. Fowl Pox


If you notice that your chickens develop white spots on their skin, scabby sores on their combs, white ulcers in their mouth or trachea, and their laying stops then you should grow concerned that your chickens are developing Fowl Pox.


There are treatment options for Fowl Pox. You can feed them soft food and give them a warm and dry place to try and recoup. With adequate care, there is a great chance that your birds can survive this illness.


If you would like to remove the odds of your birds even contracting this disease there is a vaccine available. If not, know that they can contact this disease from other contaminated chickens, mosquitos, and it is a virus so it can be contracted by air as well.

Contact urgently your vertrinary for Fowl Pox vaccines to treat your birds.

2- . Infectious Coryza

You will know that your birds have caught this disease when their heads become swollen. Their eyes will literally swell shut and their combs will swell. Then the discharge will begin to flow from their eyes and noses. They will stop laying and will have moisture under their wings.


some local farmers use paloil to treat this disease, do not forget to call attention of your vertrinary as soon as your see this disease in your farm, it can be deadly and affect your entire flock.


Once your chickens contract this disease they should be put down. If not, they will remain a carrier of the disease for life which is a risk to the rest of your flock.


Be sure to discard the body afterward so no other animal becomes infected by it.


However, the light at the end of this tunnel is that even though this disease is a bacteria it only travels through contaminated water, other contaminated birds, and surfaces that have been contaminated with the bacteria.



So if you keep your chickens protected from other random chickens and keep their coop and water clean they should be safe from this disease.


3. Marek’s Disease

This disease is more common in younger birds that are usually under the age of 20 weeks.


So you will know that this disease has struck your baby chicks if you begin to see tumors growing inside or outside of your chick. Their iris will turn gray and they will no longer respond to light. And they will become paralyzed.


Unfortunately, this disease is very easy for them to catch. It is a virus which means it is super easy to transmit from bird to bird. They actually obtain the virus by breathing in pieces of shed skin and feather from an infected chick.


And sadly, if your chick gets this disease it needs to be put down. It will remain a carrier of the disease for life if it survives.


However, the good news is there is a vaccine and it is usually given to day old chicks. Halaalfarms vaccinate their day old chicks for Marek before going out.


4. Infectious Bronchitis

This disease hits close to home because it can wipe out half of your flock, You’ll recognize this disease when you begin to hear your chickens sneezing, snoring, and coughing. And then the drainage will begin to secrete from their nose and eyes.


Their laying will cease too.


But the good news is you can get a vaccine to stop this disease from impacting your chickens.


However, if you decide against that then you will need to move quickly when seeing these signs. Infectious Bronchitis is a viral disease and will travel quickly through the air.


To treat Infectious Bronchitis, give your chickens a warm, dry place to recoup.  you can also give your birds a warm herb tea and fed them fresh herbs, which seemed to help.

5.Fowl Cholera


You should be suspicious of this disease if you see your birds begin to have a greenish or yellowish diarrhea, are having obvious joint pain, are struggling to breathe, and have a darkened head or wattle. Fowl Cholera is a bacterial disease that can be contracted from wild animals or food and water that has been contaminated by this bacteria.


But the downside to your chicken developing this disease is there is no real treatment. If by some chance your chicken survives, it will still always be a carrier of the disease.


So it is usually better to put them down and destroy their carcass so it will not be passed.


But there is a vaccine for your chickens to prevent the disease from ever taking hold.

6 Botulism

If your chickens begin to have progressing tremors you should grow concerned. If your chickens have botulism the tremors will progress into total body paralysis which does include their breathing.


It is a serious disease.


You will also notice their feathers will be easy to pull out and death usually occurs within a few hours.


But what can you do about it?


Well, there is an antitoxin that can be purchased from your local vet. Though it is considered to be expensive. However, if you catch the disease early enough you can mix 1 teaspoon of Epsom salts with 1 ounce of warm water. You can give it to them by dropper once daily.


If your chickens have contracted this disease it means that there has been some type of dead meat left near their food and water which contaminated it. Which means this disease is avoidable as long as you keep your chickens in a clean environment and clean up any dead carcass from around their environment.

7. Thrush

Thrush with chickens is very similar to thrush that babies get.


You’ll notice a white oozy substance inside their crop (which is a space between their neck and body.) They will have a larger than normal appetite. The chicken will appear lethargic and have a crusty vent area. And their feathers will look ruffled.


It is important to mention that thrush is a fungal disease. This means it can be contracted if you allow your chickens to eat molded feed or other molded food. And they can also contract the disease from contaminated water or surfaces.


Though there is no vaccine, it can be treated by an anti-fungal medicine that you can get from your local vet. Be sure to remove the bad food and clean their water container as well.

8. Air Sac Disease

This disease first appears in the form of poor laying skills and a weak chicken. As it progresses, you will notice coughing, sneezing, breathing problems, swollen joints, and possibly death.


Now, there is a vaccine for this illness, and it can be treated with an antibiotic from the vet. But it can be picked up from other birds (even wild birds) and it can be transferred from a hen that has it to her chick through the egg.


So just keep an eye out for any of these symptoms so it can be treated quickly and effectively.


9. Newcastle Disease

This disease also appears through the respiratory system. You will begin to see breathing problems, discharge from their nose, their eyes will begin to look murky, and their laying will stop. Also, it is common that the bird’s legs and wings will become paralyzed as well as their necks twisted.



This disease is carried by other birds including wild birds. That is how it is usually contracted. But if you touch an infected bird you can pass it on from your clothes, shoes, and other items.


However, the good news is that older birds usually will recover and they are not carriers afterward.


But most baby birds will die from the disease. contact your vet asap to cure your birds .


There is a vaccine for the disease though the US is working to rid the country of the disease all the way around.


10. Mushy Chick

Mushy Chick

This disease obviously will impact chicks. It usually shows up in newly hatched chicks that have a midsection that is enlarged, inflamed, and blue tinted. The chick will have an unpleasant scent and will appear to be drowsy. Naturally, the chick will also be weak.


So this disease doesn’t have a vaccine. It usually is transmitted from chick to chick or from a dirty surface where an infected chick was. And usually, it is contracted from an unclean area where a chick with a weak immune system contracts the bacteria.


There is no vaccine for this disease, although sometimes antibiotics will work. But usually, when you come in contact with this disease you will need to immediately separate your healthy chicks from the sick ones.


Use caution as the bacteria within this disease (such as staph and strep) can impact humans.


11. Pullorum


This disease impacts chicks and older birds differently. The chicks will show no signs of activity, have a white paste all over their backsides, and show signs of breathing difficulty. Though some will die with no signs at all.


However, in older birds, you will see sneezing and coughing on top of poor laying skills.


This is a viral disease. It can be contracted through contaminated surfaces and other birds that have become carriers of the disease. Unfortunately, there is no vaccine for this disease and all birds that contract the disease should be put down and the carcass destroyed so no other animal will pick up the disease.


12. Avian Influenza

Avian Influenza is most commonly known as the bird flu. It was one of my initial fears of owning chickens because all you hear about on the news is how people get sick with bird flu from their chickens. However, after knowing the symptoms you’ll be able to put that fear to rest.


You need to know how to act quickly if you are afraid your backyard birds have come in contact with it.


So the signs you will notice will include respiratory troubles. Your chickens will quit laying. They will probably develop diarrhea. You may notice swelling in your chicken’s face and that their comb and wattle are discolored or have turned blue.


Avian Influenza

And they may even develop dark red spots on their legs and combs.


Unfortunately, there is no vaccine and the chickens infected will always be carriers. Wild animals can even carry the disease from bird to bird.


Once your birds get this disease, they need to be put down and the carcass destroyed. And you will need to sanitize any area that the birds were in before ever introducing a new flock.


Use great caution because this disease can make humans sick.


And here is a great resource about avian influenza for all backyard chicken keepers. Hopefully, this will help to put your mind at rest about this disease and your backyard flock.


13. Bumblefoot


Bumblefoot is a disease that you’ll know exactly what you’re looking at when you see it.


It begins by your chicken accidentally cutting its foot on something. It can happen when they are digging in the garden, scratching around in mulch, and so many other ways. But then the cut gets infected. And the chicken’s foot will begin to swell. It can even swell up the leg.


So you can treat it by performing surgery (learn how here.) If not, the infection will eventually take over the chicken and claim its life.


Obviously, bumblefoot can happen very easily and there isn’t much you can do to prevent besides just keep a close eye on your chickens’ feet. If you notice they have a cut then be sure to wash and disinfect it to prevent this disease from setting up.


That is all of the common chicken diseases I have for you today.


However, there are many less common illnesses too. So just be sure to always pay attention to your flock and stay alert to any changes. Never be afraid to research. It is better to overreact than to underreact and miss something that could be detrimental to your whole flock.

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Brooding Requirements for Poultry Chicks

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 3, 2019 at 3:40 PM Comments comments (1)

Brooding Temperatures

Beginning at one day of age, the chick should be housed at a temperature between 87 – 92° F (30 – 33° C), at a relative humidity between 40 – 60%. Care should be taken to prevent the chicks from being exposed to drafts which could result in wind chill. When the chick is one week of age the temperature can be reduced by 4° F (2° C). Continue reducing the temperature until housing temperature of 70° F (21° C) is reached.

Observation of the birds during the brooding period can assist you in providing the most desirable temperatures. Birds that are cold will huddle together in a very tight group. Should this condition exist the temperature needs to be increased. Chicks that are too hot will pant and appear drowsy. Chicks that are comfortable will be evenly dispersed within the cage and be active except during periods of rest.

Brood Lighting

Lighting for 1 day old birds should begin at 20 – 22 hours per day for the first two days at 10 lux (1ftc) intensity. Reduce day length weekly to reach approximately 12 hours of light at 8 weeks of age.



Fresh water should be present when chicks are placed in the cage. Lixits or cups of water should be manipulated to stimulate drinking. Water consumption will increase from .01 liters/chick/day at one week of age to .03 liters/chick/day at 4 weeks of age.


Feed for one day old birds should be withheld for the first two hours to allow chicks to find the water prior to consumption of dry feeds. After the first two hours of housing, feed can be made freely available. The feed should be a high protein starter ration with at least 20% protein. Consumption will increase from approximately 13 grams of feed/chick/day at one week of age to approximately 29 grams/chick/day at four weeks of age.


Brooding Requirements for Poultry Chicks

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on March 3, 2019 at 3:35 PM Comments comments (0)

Brooding Temperatures


Beginning at one day of age, the chick should be housed at a temperature between 87 – 92° F (30 – 33° C), at a relative humidity between 40 – 60%. Care should be taken to prevent the chicks from being exposed to drafts which could result in wind chill. When the chick is one week of age the temperature can be reduced by 4° F (2° C). Continue reducing the temperature until housing temperature of 70° F (21° C) is reached.



Observation of the birds during the brooding period can assist you in providing the most desirable temperatures. Birds that are cold will huddle together in a very tight group. Should this condition exist the temperature needs to be increased. Chicks that are too hot will pant and appear drowsy. Chicks that are comfortable will be evenly dispersed within the cage and be active except during periods of rest.



Brood Lighting


Lighting for 1 day old birds should begin at 20 – 22 hours per day for the first two days at 10 lux (1ftc) intensity. Reduce day length weekly to reach approximately 12 hours of light at 8 weeks of age.





Fresh water should be present when chicks are placed in the cage. Lixits or cups of water should be manipulated to stimulate drinking. Water consumption will increase from .01 liters/chick/day at one week of age to .03 liters/chick/day at 4 weeks of age.





Feed for one day old birds should be withheld for the first two hours to allow chicks to find the water prior to consumption of dry feeds. After the first two hours of housing, feed can be made freely available. The feed should be a high protein starter ration with at least 20% protein. Consumption will increase from approximately 13 grams of feed/chick/day at one week of age to approximately 29 grams/chick/day at four weeks of age.



How to Start a Poultry Farm in Ghana

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on January 1, 2019 at 1:25 PM Comments comments (3)

Starting a chicken farm and making a business out of it are two different things. Any individual getting into the poultry not only becomes a chicken farmer but also a businessperson too. This fact depends on the intended target market and sector within the chicken industry (broilers or layers). The first thing that a prospective farmer needs to do is draw up a comprehensive business plan. This write-up should detail how the farmer intends to operate from the point of view of all stakeholders (lawyers, bankers, etc.) that may participate in the business. After doing so, he/she should set aside adequate capital to maintain the intended number of chicken and purchase all the necessary equipment. Read more:

Welcome To Halaalfarms

Posted by Halaalfarms Ghana on January 1, 2019 at 6:50 AM Comments comments (0)

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